Dilation of Time and Space;

An Examination of the True Nature of Spacetime

Preface

Over a century ago, Albert Einstein—as a philosopher and theoretical physicist—studied the relationship of physical observations to speed. His logical analyses of certain deviations he observed led him to create his Special Theory of Relativity, where he presented these deviations as "time dilation." Basically, he said, time slows for an object as its speed increases. This is one of the reasons why the term "relativity" comes into play. Time varies relative to speed; it's not a perfect one-to-one relationship. Or at least, it isn't according to our identity.

But then, we human beings are imperfect. Our main defect, when it comes to understanding the universe, is our delayed response to the natural world due to the processing of incoming information about natural motion. Geometrical and mathematical analysis of experimental observations should be compared to physical laws; when philosophy is added, the physical theory is not always applicable to real physics.

Einsteinian geometry and mathematics have resulted in a number of new physical theories. For instance, Einsteinian physics suggest that when clocks act differently under certain physical conditions, time itself changes under those conditions. One example is gravitational time dilation, when time slows due to increased gravity. Before Einstein, physicists would have considered that the changed time dimension was caused by a new physical environment (i.e., another operating frame) for the clock. Another example is that the old physics suggests that the lifetime of a particle in one frame of reference may not be the same as it is in another frame. But modern physics says that the lifetime must be the same, independently of the changed physical conditions. Therefore, time itself changes character, rather than the particle; hence, time dilation.

By my way of thinking, Einstein's philosophy describes how human beings perceive nature and nothing more. In reality, the physical world is independent of human activities and perception. That is why physics must be stripped of human additions contradictory to physical laws, and applied only to data acquired by experimental physics. One example of a human addition is the idea that a particle in another reference frame that does not maintain the laws of mass and energy (and thus is not from our world) determines the physical properties (i.e. mass) of particles in our material world.

One branch of physics, String Theory, postulates that the smallest possible unit of physical matter is a one-dimensional string. String Theory can be used to explain gravitation and time deviations without resorting to ideas like time or space dilation or contraction. Although many theorists believe they can use String Theory to understand all the forces and particles in nature, it's a very poor String Theory that does. They use only the mathematical formulae for some string properties, and therefore their String Theory cannot actually be the ultimate physical theory of fundamental particles and forces. Genuine string theorists, in their physical approach to strings, must work with all the physical variants of strings.

The string theory of music is better described physically, and better understood, than the existing String Theory of physics. In this report, I hope to improve this state by exploring how String Theory applies to both temporal and spatial distortion—apparent dilation and contraction. This is founded on a basic understanding of elementary strings; the shapes of strings propagating in space; the effects that free strings cause in nature; how strings are bound into subatomic particles; the shapes of strings that exist on the surfaces of subatomic particles; and which forces produce collisions of strings having momentum, and so on. In this treatise, the explanations will be brief, since a detailed discussion of the basics was published in my previous book, Absolute String Theory.

Elementary Strings

Small units are the building blocks of larger structures. At the most basic level, everything in our world consists of sets of chemical compounds built from atoms. Atoms are themselves comprised of nuclei, composed of protons and neutrons, orbited by electrons. Nature consists not just of matter, but also of energy and the forces arising from the interactions between objects. The universe registers these interactions between distant objects, and therefore there must also exist particles that create the forces across these distances. Clearly, there are particles smaller than the subatomic particles that comprise atoms. According to String Theory, the smallest particles take the forms of elementary strings.

The Definition of a String

The smallest object possible is a point object. Strings consist of connected points, forming a line. The points of this line are not fixed in relationship to each other; therefore, variations in length and in shapes exist among these elementary strings. Their flexibility can cause a string to be curved or straighten, prolonged or shortened. Thus, a string is a segment of the smallest possible elastic (live) curve. Here, the term "live" means that the string bears the smallest amount of energy possible in nature— the basic unit or quantum of energy. Its "life" lies in its ability to move: to vibrate back and forth as a macroscopic spring does, to rotate upon itself (spinning), or to move its loose ends. This flexibility allows for the existence of strings in many dynamic geometrical forms.

Strings Propagating through Space

Vibration is an intrinsic property of freely existing strings in nature. Since physics allows two kinds of vibrations relative to space, two kinds of vibrating strings must exist. Vibration must be considered specially for moving strings, because they propagate very quickly and therefore do not have enough time to adjust themselves to the needs of their surroundings, which is why they maintain their inner motion.

Moving strings propagating at the speed of light vibrate either longitudinally (forward and backward) and transversely (side to side). Transversely vibrating strings are photons. We know photons very well, since the existence of all life is based on the action of photons. Among other things, photons create light, making the statement "we are beings of light" literally true.

All other strings propagating at the speed of light must vibrate longitudinally, making them gravitons (see the details of my theoretical argument in Absolute String Theory). We don't registering gravitons directly, but we can detect their effects, suggesting that these statements about them should be true:
1. Since nature allows two kinds of vibrations and one of them is well known, then strings vibrating in the other direction—longitudinally—must propagate through space the same way photons do, and at the same speed.
2. Although we are beings of light, the natural world exists thanks to the force that binds matter together—gravity. The gravitational force is so dominant in the universe that many scientists deny the existence of any other large-scale universal forces (they think gravitation is the all-mighty force of the universe left after the Big Bang). Physics teaches that a force is just an effect of interacting bodies; to teach otherwise is to teach pseudoscience or mysticism. Hence, gravitation must be the result of interacting strings that propagate through space, though not as transverse waves. Since gravitation affects bodies located quite far apart in the universe, these strings must propagate at the speed of light. If gravitation exists, then longitudinally vibrating strings propagating at the speed of light must exist. They do, and are called gravitons.

Strings in Matter

Bound strings form matter. This has been confirmed by experimental observation of strings (photons) emitted from subatomic particles of matter. Therefore, the elemental unit of subatomic particles is the string. Some researchers believe that quarks are the elemental particles of matter, but they fail to realize that quarks also emit strings directly or as products of their decay. The conclusion? That strings must be the smallest elemental particles in ordinary matter. Strings existing inside subatomic particles mostly have the same form, and give matter its basic physical property: mass.
Since I have explained mass in detail in my previous publications, for now I'll just comment that mass is the physical property of matter arising from the dynamics of strings inside matter. "Dynamic" means that an object moves; and therefore, there must be room for movement inside particles of matter. Since a string has the intrinsic property of movement (its life), this is enough to prove that there is plenty of free space inside subatomic particles to allow strings to move. If a baryon (a proton or neutron) has a great deal of free space in its volume, then it should be possible to squeeze baryonic matter into a smaller volume given enough pressure.
Extreme pressure would be able to squeeze baryonic matter into a very small volume indeed; and theoretically, it can. We have nothing that can compress matter this way, since it would be impossible to do so using equipment built from ordinary matter, i.e., matter that is based on baryonic matter. However, the extreme pressure present when an especially large star dies triggers the further gravitational collapse of matter. That gravitational pressure removes any free space in atoms, creating a very dense form of neutron matter, or neutronium, that collapses into what astrophysicists call a neutron star. But matter can be compressed even farther, so much that the density at the hearts of the largest dying stars produces black holes.

Yet we live in an industrial age, in which technicians have been able to construct a machine on Earth where the extreme pressure needed for such a collapse can also be reached, for a very short time, during particle collisions. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN speeds up baryons almost to the speed of light, and then collides them head on. The LHC reached such an extreme colliding pressure on July 3, 2012 that observers detected a piece of matter with a density many times higher than that of normal baryons. They reported that this particle lived for 1.56 x 10-22 seconds.

The lifetime of this particle was equal to the amount of time it took light to propagate the distance of 4.68 x 10-14 m. Hence, the collision ran at or near the speed of light, since it lasted just as long in light meters as the diameter of a nucleus (a cluster of baryons). This type of particle can exist in our world only under extreme conditions, under extreme pressure, and only for as long as that collision time. When the collision ended, this particle decayed back into ordinary matter (fermions and other particles) and strings (mostly photons). The conclusion here is that the latest experiments at LHC in CERN created a piece of matter proving the existence of substantial free space in the volume of subatomic particles.

The scientific implication is that the elemental particles comprising subatomic particles are similar in their volumes to the molecules of a gas. The smallest particle known to nature is the string, and therefore, strings should move within the volumes of subatomic particles. By general assumption, their movement is random, like the Brownian movement of gases. Therefore, I conclude: the mass of an elementary subatomic particle arises from the dynamics of the strings comprising its volume. The LHC's latest experiments have proved this theory of mass.

Gravitons Interacting with Matter

Gravitons are traveling strings vibrating longitudinally, propagating through space at the speed of light. But strings residing in matter (i.e., in subatomic particles) are moving as well, so we need to resolve which kind of vibration prevails among the strings comprising matter. If gravitons interact with matter, then they must be the same kind of strings; and so the same kind of vibration should occur in both. Therefore, I conclude that the strings filling the volume of subatomic particle also vibrate longitudinally.

If two strings are vibrating in the same direction and they meet, let's say at the same velocity, they should interfere physically, as springs do, and pair up.

Vibrating strings relocating in subatomic particles should collide randomly with neighboring strings (per Brownian movement), and therefore do not have a uniform and one-directional motion. Their movement should be like that of an object connected to a spring, or like an object suspended from a pivot, swinging freely as a pendulum. In either case, the string accelerates as it approaches equilibrium (the midpoint position of its movement), then slows down until it stops at the point of maximal displacement, and then starts to accelerate back toward equilibrium, slowing again until it reaches the opposite point of maximal displacement. This means that there must be a higher speed, at least at the equilibrium point, than the speed of light, which we observe in strings propagating through space (Newton's Third Law).

Gravitation starts to work when a graviton merges in a "sticky collision" with a string of a particle of matter, and then both accelerate to the equilibrium point. After passing the equilibrium point, the pair of strings slows until their speed is equal to the graviton's initial speed (the speed of light). As the speed of the couplet tries to fall below the normal speed of light, the graviton is forced to leave the string of matter (in order to maintain its identity). The graviton continues on until it eventually (and temporarily) merges with another string of matter. When that string of matter loses the graviton, the string continues on to the point of maximal displacement, then turns back—and so on.

From the above description of gravitons merging with strings of matter, it's clear that strings of matter give gravitons "rides" during their motion. The rides have these physical consequences:

  1. The gravitons are displaced through space farther and faster than they would be without the interactions, and therefore, gravitons accelerate as they propagate through matter. Gravitons propagate faster through matter than they do through a vacuum—which means they move through matter faster than the speed of light. Thus, the index of refraction for gravitons propagating through matter is always less than 1, contrary to the index of refraction for photons (light). The index of refraction = the velocity of strings in a vacuum/the velocity of strings propagating through a medium.
  2. If gravitons displace farther when propagating though matter, then they gain speed in the direction of propagation. According to the physical law of action and reaction (Newton's Third Law of Motion), a string giving a graviton a ride then has to recoil; resulting in a speed less than its former speed without the ride. The graviton captures some of the linear momentum of the string of matter during the sticky collision and subsequent ride. Since the strings that the gravitons propagate through reside in subatomic particles, the subatomic particles are pushed in the direction of the graviton emitter as the strings recoil. Thus, gravitons push matter back in the direction from which they came (per Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation).
  3. When the strings of matter slow down because the resulting speed of the sticky collision, this is the result of the sum of both linear momenta from the graviton and the string of matter. If the host string slows during the transfer, then it needs more time to reach maximal displacement in order to eliminate this lost momentum. This also means that when an atomic clock "ticks" in relation to the motion of its subatomic particles, gravitation must also affect it (a topic we will discuss later in more detail). Therefore, we should not assume that gravity has slowed time. We do not need new physics to explain this, since physics already explains the slower "ticking" in a high-gravity field. Gravitational time dilation does not exist in string theory physics.

Entropy at the Spontaneous Birth of Gravitons

Strings in matter move, and therefore have dynamic properties. The dynamic properties of objects are not quantitatively stable forever, but change in directions necessary to ease internal stress (per the Second Law of Thermodynamics). Since every string in a subatomic particles moves, it has kinetic energy. The maximal kinetic energy of the string occurs at its highest speed—at the equilibrium point of its range of movement. At the point of maximal displacement, when the string stops, its kinetic energy is zero. Its kinetic energy changes into potential energy; and thus the maximal potential energy is at the maximal displacement point.

The constant change of potential energy into kinetic energy and back results in stress within the subatomic particle. The fact that the strings are locked within the subatomic particles creates natural stress. However, a subatomic particle can lose some of this internal energy (stress) when a string escapes from it.

A freed string should travel at the speed of light, and thus carry away its kinetic energy. The string acquired that kinetic energy somewhere between its equilibrium point and its maximal displacement point, when it had a speed equal to the speed of light. However, the string also had some potential energy as well as kinetic energy at that point. When a string escapes from a particle, this potential energy is lost to a decrease in order in the universe.
This lost energy is the smallest quantum of entropy in the universe. It is lost to nature; though it's not destroyed, it goes nowhere, so it can never be reused. This means that our material world was created or evolved with added energy in the past, but now benefits from the creator's or evolution's energy as applied to the previously discussed strings in their restricted volume. In a sense, then, our material world "burns" this energy to sustain its life and functioning. This lost energy is the engine of all processes in the universe. Spontaneous universal processes (stellar creation, galaxy formation, the creation of chemical elements in stars and stellar explosions, the production of energy in stars, and so on) all exploit this creative potential. In science, this entropy creates spontaneous action in nature.

The spontaneous birth of gravitons from ordinary matter must arise due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics applying to matter having mass. Consequently, spontaneous action in the macroworld (our normal-sized world) runs in the direction where gravitons are emitted more often (water always flows downhill, and a small object moves in the direction of the massive object).

Every object made of ordinary matter emits gravitons. Their rate of emission is proportional to the stress inherent in matter, and thus is proportional to the mass of the body. Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation reflects this, because it states that a gravitational force between two bodies is directly proportional to their masses. The force generated by gravitons is an attractive force toward another object. Since an object emits gravitons into space in all directions, their density falls by the square of the distance from the object, so the gravitational force is disproportional to the square of the distance. This is a physical explanation of Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation, according to String Theory.

Therefore, Einstein's conjecture that gravitation is due to the bending of space due to the presence of matter is not borne out in modern String Physics.

Strings for Electricity

Strings inside a particle of matter should vibrate longitudinally (back and forth), like springs. If we were to see them on the surfaces of subatomic particles, some would resemble needles, giving the particles a hedgehog-like appearance. The surface strings have one end rooted inside the particle, while the other is free to stretch outside the particle.

A string with one end free might wave around, due to its longitudinal motion. If the string is also rotating around its length, then the waving end creates a funnel shape and, thus, a vortex. As occurs in macroworld whirlpools, the conical mouth of such a funnel might drag in other things. So, funnel strings have the ability to attract stem strings, and stem strings have the ability to be so attracted.

We should expect that both shapes of strings will exist on the surfaces of most particles, so both forces (pushing into and pulling in) are present. Thus, individual strings will have either a positive or a negative charge, based on their shapes. Nonetheless, a particle as a whole may have a surface with an overall neutral charge when all positive and negative charges are summed. That particle is a neutron. Now, remember that although the neutron's overall charge is neutral, its individual strings have different charges, which stresses the surface. Each charged particle wants to be paired with another of the opposite charge. This stress causes instability, which is why free neutrons decay spontaneously, with a half-life of about ten minutes. Otherwise, when a neutron touches another neutron, the charged longing between some surface strings is satisfied when they form pairs, causing the neutrons to bond. This generates the strong nuclear force between the neutrons, and therefore, neutrons in nuclei are stable. Their half-life is extended indefinitely.

Free neutrons decay into positively and negatively charged particles. The largest of these should be the one with the greatest "hedgehog" appearance; that is, the one that has stems extending beyond the surface. This is the positively charged proton. Each of the surface stems bears a tiny positive charge.

Conversely, particles with a majority of open vortices on the surface have a negative charge. Each little vortex has its own tiny negative charge. When summed with the charges of all the other strings, this results in a negatively charged particle—an electron.

When surface strings move actively enough on the neutron, they may break free and be emitted. As some of these strings start to emerge, they pull loose other strings fixed to them (mass’s strings inside the neutron), and thus a new particle comes into existence that has a net negative surface charge—i.e., an electron. Since this process of decay occurs without the influence of collisions with other particles, this new product may not travel away from the baryon, which now has a positive charge and is thus a proton. The decay products may instead become bound to form an atom. In an atom, the force of the linear momentum of the electron is choked off by the electrical force, so the electron acquires rotational momentum and orbits the proton indefinitely. This is the elemental ordinary matter.

Note that the neutron precedes the atom and its other constituents. Hence, at the beginning of time, the universe must have gone through a stage when only neutrons existed.

Strings for Magnetism

Strings without fixed ends may also exist among the myriads of strings in a subatomic particle. The ends of such a string may attach to each other, forming a circle that can't spin normally, so it rotates like a wheel instead. These "wheel strings" have a physical property whereby one attracts another rotating in the opposite direction. If two wheels having the same axis of rotation rotate in the same direction, they repel each other. This is the origin of magnetism.

As mentioned in the previous section, when an electron forms from a neutron, it disturbs or breaks a whole string system in the baryon, also casting out strings giving mass to the electron. New single-string wheels are also emitted. When such a string leaves the neutron, it may pair up with another that circles in the opposite direction, while that wheel takes along another, and so on. The result can be a much larger particle consisting of conjoined, alternately rotating wheel strings—a magnetic particle.

This particle lacks an electrical charge, because it possesses no electrical strings. Therefore, it can depart the decaying particle without any electric restrictions. Similarly, because gravity affects only vibrating strings, it does not affect these wheel strings. Therefore, these new particles can propagate at the speed of light without gravitational restrictions. However, if this particle also pulls out some mass’s strings (vibrating longitudinally), then it has a mass and can be affected by gravitational fields.

Science calls these particles neutrinos.

Standard neutron decay produces a particle with a majority of positively charged stemmed strings on its surface, a proton, as well as a particle with a majority of negatively charged funnel-shaped strings on its surface, an electron. Together, they may form a hydrogen atom, which is the most common type in the universe (not surprising if the universe began as a burst of neutrons). Also produced are wheel-shaped strings, neutrinos, that may or may not have a very tiny mass. These three particles are all stable elementary particles spontaneously created by nature.

The Nuclear Forces

The strong nuclear force acts only inside the nuclei of atoms; hence its name. It's this force that holds protons and neutrons together. It arises between particles when their strong electric charges come into contact and "short circuit"—that is, when funnel-shaped surface strings of one particle hold onto the stems of other particles. The strong nuclear force works only over very, very short distances. Consider the two neutrons and two protons bond into the nucleus of an atom of helium:

Since protons and neutrons are spherical, it's possible to multiply the "plugging joints" of nuclear particles into many varieties. The forces required to hold a nucleus together may vary. In some cases, a large cluster of baryons, consisting of many poorly arranged neutrons and protons, can solve this stress by decomposing into smaller clusters—that is, into new nuclei. Science explains this as a result of the weak nuclear force.

Strings for Electric and Magnetic Field Lines

Although some strings propagate at the speed of light—the standard speed for string movement—logically, some are not propagating through space at all. These strings lack momentum, and therefore don't carry force to other objects. But they're still "live;" each possesses a quantum of energy. This allows them to adjust themselves to other such strings very quickly by changing their shapes. These strings have no fixed ends, and can form shapes without any restrictions. Thus, they can become the building blocks for connecting channels between electric charges and magnetic poles. Rather than having just one funnel shaped end, they can have two.
These strings can shape themselves to fit their circumstances. For instance, when they approach a string with a negative electrical charge, they can adjust themselves so that one end is a positive stem to plug into the approaching vortex, and the other becomes a negatively charged vortex itself. Other neighboring non-propagating strings then adjust to the previous string, so that a stem is pointed to the vortex of that string, and a new vortex is created on opposite end of the second string, and so on—thus forming a channel that seeks a positively charged source. This forms an electric field. The charge is satisfied when it finds a positively charged object, or finds another end of a chain that has built up from a firm positive charge. In this way, an electrical field line is formed and completed between two charges.
If the charges on objects are not fixed, then they can move from one to the other thanks to this line of force. There is an attractive force between electric charges, since our strings seek to join one another. Certainly, as the stems more closely approach the vortexes, there arise stronger effects on the stems; and therefore, the force between two charges increases as the distance between them decreases.

In fact, more lines can be created between two charges, mostly depending on the numbers of charged strings on the surface of the electrical contacts. A more highly charged electric contact allows free strings to create more lines, and therefore the force between electric charges depends also on their electrical potentials (Coulomb’s law).

Sometimes both electric charges can run in the same direction. In this case, incomplete chains approach vortex-to-vortex or stem to stem. This sets up a repulsive electric force between the same charges (positive to positive or negative to negative).

The same holds true at magnetic poles. Free strings there adjust themselves to rotate differently from neighboring strings. In this way, they create magnetic field lines. Where are magnetic field lines there is a magnetic field. Then electric field lines create an electric field. Thus, strings without momenta (without c) carry local electric and magnetic forces among electric and magnetic charges.

Electromagnetism in Photons

Force is an effect between interacting objects. Since the smallest subatomic objects are strings, the basic interactions that generate forces in nature arise from the interactions of these strings with matter. Since there are just two ways for strings to act on distant objects, we usually define just two fundamental forces between objects outside the atomic nucleus. We have two carriers of forces, therefore: two bosons, one each for gravity (the graviton, which possesses longitudinal vibration) and electromagnetism (the photon, with its transverse vibration). The question is, why do photons apparently carry two forces (electricity and magnetism) in one quantum of energy?

Photons usually come into existence when they escape from the surfaces of electrons. The electron loses a surface string, which propagates along a straight line. However, this string is not a straightened abscissa, since funnel-shaped strings cover the surface of the electron, due to the strings having one end rooted inside the electron and the second free. Therefore, it has a node at the fixed end and an antinode (the funnel shape) in the free end. When such a string pulls loose as a photon, this string has both ends free, and therefore the node displaces toward the middle of the string. Such a string propagates through space as a photon, which is constantly spinning along its long axis. Therefore, the trajectory of photons is not a one-dimensional line, but more of a three-dimensional spiral. This explains how a photon can have characteristics of both a particle and a wave.

As the photon propagates through space, it can be modeled as uniform circular motion combined with perpendicular uniform velocity, as pictured.

Earlier, I described magnetism as a force arising from the rotation of a wheel string around its imaginary axis; the magnetism is an effect of that rotation. You can see that the modeled photon is circling, and therefore the photon also has the properties of rotation. Hence the magnetism in "electromagnetism."

A force can either pull or push, so a force has magnitude and direction. To distinguish how many forces are present, we must also look at the direction of the forces. If there's one source and one direction, then there's one force. However, even if there's only one source but two directions, then there are two forces. Now, let's look at the physical substance of the photon again. The negative electrical charge of the photon vortex seeks a positive charge in the direction of propagation. The magnetic charge of the photon (the modeled circular motion) seeks another "wheel" rotating in the opposite axis of rotation, perpendicular to the electrical force. Therefore, we see two natural forces embodied in one boson.

When a photon is absorbed by an electron, the electron gets one more string on its surface. Since the electron bears mostly funnel-shaped strings, our photon becomes a funnel-shaped string and adds its electric potential to the electron. The magnetic potential is harder to predict, since the magnetic potential of the string is caused by the rotation of the wheel shape. To do that, our string should be disconnected from the electron to form a wheel.

The magnetic force is also present in electrons; and there it is not due to the physical effect of the component strings, but due to the physical effect of the entire particle. The electron itself rotates around its own axis, even as it revolves around the nucleus. This spinning gives rise to the magnetism of the electron. An addition to this, spin might be observed as increased magnetism.

When an object moves, it possesses a speed. If the object has a speed, then it has momentum. An object propagating along a straight line has linear momentum. Since the string is the elemental object of the universe, then a string like our photon, propagating at the speed of light, has linear momentum. That means that when the photon collides with another object in an elastic collision, the conservation of momentum determines the effects of this collision. We've already seen what happens when gravitons collide with other strings of subatomic particles and transfer the gravitational force.

Strings are invisible to us; whereas we can see matter at a macroscopic scale. But why do we see matter at all? Because our eyes register the photons as incoming light. If an object is in the way of light, we see this object, because light from the object is not coming into our eye, or at least that does is less intense. Now, photons mostly stop when they hit non-transparent objects, due to interference with the electrons orbiting atomic nuclei in the objects. The electrons absorb the photons in a "sticky collision" that transfers momentum to the object. In accordance with Newton's Third Law, this generates a force. When electrons absorb photons, they have absorbed their momentum. Yet the electron orbiting the nucleus has both angular orbital momentum and angular spinning momentum.

Now, when the electron is struck by the photon (and does not produce the photoelectric effect, in which the electron is eject from the atom), then the linear momentum of the photon is split partly into angular momenta and partly into a linear momentum of the whole electron, in a way that moves the whole atom and moves the electron into a higher orbit. Then the absorbed photon increases the orbital and spin momenta of the electron. Hence, the magnetic effect of the electron (the spinning) would increase, due to the linear momentum of the photon, rather than the electromagnetism of the photon.

This gives the atom more linear momentum, which we may feel as added heat. If the matter consists only of the simplest atoms (i.e., hydrogen), then it should be no surprise that a cloud of hydrogen can be pushed away by an object emitting photons. Indeed, this is a common occurrence in deep space. The acting force causes acceleration according to Newton's Second Law. If the collision force caused by photons prevails over the gravitational force of a photonic emitter, then even a very low rate of acceleration lasting for long periods can give the colliding particles a significant speed.

Theoretical physicists (if they still want to be called physicists), must account for all of the effects caused by photons—the photon's electric effect, its magnetic effect, and its linear momentum effect. With the resulting collision force, adding the linear momentum to atoms must always push them in direction toward which the photons propagate, away from the photonic emitter. Therefore, theoretic physicists shouldn't make the claim that repulsion of objects is an unknown physical effect of dark energy, since natural physics already describes the repulsion of objects in the universe very well.

TIME

The Life of Strings in Time

. . .

Light Scaled by the String Clock

. . .

The Second by the String Clock

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Measuring the Existence of Life

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Delayed Photons

. . .

Dilation of Perception

. . .

The Light Field

. . .

Alien Photons Entering our Light Field

. . .

Interaction Between Two Light Fields

. . .

Bending Light

. . .

Bending of Light in Other Light Fields

. . .

Bending of Light Due to Propagation in a Denser Medium

. . .

The Velocity of Light Propagating through a Medium in Motion

Time at Higher Speeds

. . .

Time and Mass

. . .

Clock Deviation in Different Environments

. . .

Change #1: Intensity of Photons

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Change #2: Intensity of Gravitons

. . .

A Moving Clock

. . .

SPACE Interacting With Mass

. . .

Conclusions

Humans are imperfect in relation to light. We perceive that everything runs away from us, and so we feel that we are detain by our material world. Our bodies are chained to the Earth, and our minds are delayed due to the need to process information, thus adding to our delays in perception. One way to overcome this is to live in faith that any faults we see are not within us. Some physicians use this human longing to prescribe placebos (medically ineffectual treatments for illnesses), and the yearning of the patient for the placebo to work actually helps some people.

Albert Einstein did something similar for physics. His theory describes a way to stay on track with light (at sixteen, he wondered what it would be like to travel along with a light ray). He advises that if humans board a rocket traveling at the speed of light, we will enter a time that is other than earthly. In this frame of reference, things seem normal; in an external frame of reference, relative time, measurements of length, and the like will appear different. Time itself slows down in the new frame of reference, as perceived from the outside. Time changed by high speed creates new activities in the new world/reference frame.

I have showed in this book that all these effects are illusions. The standard unit of time never changes, because it is rooted in the world of elementary strings. What changes is how long it takes us to process light. We have to pick up the input, deliver it into our minds, elaborate on it, manufacture it into output, and sometimes deliver it back to the outside world in order to take action. The cognitive conclusion is that when human mental processes perceive the information from a train that travels along with a light ray, then the period between acquiring input and delivering output is shortened. Therefore, human imperfection in perceiving nature seems taken away by the speed. Still, however, natural time is not affected by our limits in perception, so despite what we think we see, time dilation does not truly exist in nature.

Another of Einstein's prescriptions goes by the name of General Relativity. This drug attempts to cure human discomfort by explaining gravitation. He sees humans as caught in a net of curved spacetime. This net is active and wraps up those who enter it, jailing them. Since we long to be free, some of us have taken the first steps toward being free, which lies in understanding the fabric of this net. Thus they have accepted Einstein's placebo, and now walk in our world as higher beings because they have taken the first step to freedom, discovered the mystery of why the earth holds them back.

They omit the fact that Einstein's theory is not built on physical possibility, physical evidence and physical analysis. They believe that these crumbs of knowledge he has offered have cured them. Just as it's rare to find any healing substances in homeopathic drugs (since they are diluted by a factor 106-12), it's is hard to find any serious physical evidence for the Einsteinian understanding of gravitation.

In reality, space is not curved and warped by celestial bodies. Since these theorists are unable to show any gravitational waves among objects in our world, or detect holes in real space, they look for gravitational waves in space left over by the Big Bang, hoping that will cure them.

Einstein's theories of relativity use the human cognitive process of misunderstanding human perception, and therefore there is no serious evidence for them. In this book, I believe that I have uprooted all the main evidence for Einsteinian theories built on dilation of time and space. If not, let me know, and I will look into that evidence as well—and together, we can cleanse the human "odor" from our science.

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